TABLE 1

Child, Family, and Injury Characteristics by Injury Group

mTBI (N = 119)cmTBI (N = 110)OI (N = 118)Pa
Child and family characteristics
 Enrollment site Texas (versus Utah), n (%)50 (42)44 (40)52 (44).82
 Prefer to complete surveys online, n (%)82 (69)93 (85)90 (76).02
 Preferred language Spanish (versus English), n (%)14 (12)4 (4)15 (13).04
 Age at injury, y, mean (SD)10.3 (3.7)10.5 (3.5)9.7 (3.7).16
 Child sex female, n (%)44 (37)33 (30)44 (37).43
 Child race, n (%).14
  American Indian or Alaskan native2 (2)0 (0)0 (0)
  Asian American1 (1)5 (5)2 (2)
  African American11 (9)4 (4)6 (5)
  Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander1 (1)0 (0)0 (0)
  White90 (76)93 (85)95 (82)
  Multiracial13 (11)7 (6)13 (11)
 Child ethnicity Hispanic or Latino, n (%)31 (26)17 (16)33 (28).06
 Married parents, n (%)85 (73)90 (83)83 (72).11
 Either caregiver currently employed, n (%)112 (94)105 (95)106 (90).21
 Respondent education, n (%).001
  Less than high school18 (15)7 (6)16 (14)
  High school29 (24)16 (15)14 (12)
  Vocational and/or some college36 (30)59 (54)42 (36)
  Bachelor’s degree or more36 (30)28 (25)46 (39)
 Income at or below poverty level, n (%)37 (34)11 (11)21 (19)<.001
 Insurance type, n (%).29
  None9 (8)10 (9)5 (4)
  Medicaid and/or CHIP43 (36)31 (28)33 (28)
  Commercial, private, and/or military67 (56)68 (62)80 (68)
 Previous concussion with ED or doctor visit, n (%)10 (8)8 (7)5 (4).41
 Developmental, learning, or behavioral problem, n (%)17 (14)13 (12)9 (8).26
 CBCL affective t score, mean (SD)55.3 (7.5)54.4 (6.6)54.2 (6.0).38
 CBCL anxiety t score, mean (SD)53.5 (6.2)53.8 (6.6)53.7 (5.4).95
 CBCL ADHD t score, mean (SD)55.0 (7.2)53.5 (5.7)53.8 (6.0).16
 FAD general functioning scale, mean (SD)1.5 (0.5)1.5 (0.4)1.5 (0.5).66
 Social Capital Index, mean (SD)3.5 (1.1)3.6 (1.0)3.7 (1.0).44
Injury characteristics
 Injury mechanism, n (%)<.001
  Pedestrian or bicycle21 (18)15 (14)4 (3)
  Motorized vehicle30 (25)24 (22)11 (9)
  Fall44 (37)54 (49)83 (70)
  Struck by or against12 (10)10 (9)6 (5)
  Organized sport10 (8)4 (4)12 (10)
  Other2 (2)3 (3)2 (2)
 Loss of consciousness (yes), n (%)45 (38)49 (45)0 (0)<.001
 ED GCS (lowest postresuscitation), median (Q1, Q3)15 (15, 15)15 (14, 15).09
 Maximum AIS excluding head, median (Q1, Q3)1 (0, 2)1 (0, 1)2 (2, 2)<.001
 ISS score, median (Q1, Q3)5 (1, 10)10 (9, 16)4 (4, 5)<.001
 Head imaging in ED (CT), n (%)104 (87)110 (100)<.001
 Injuries seen on brain imaging, n (%)
  Skull fracture27 (23)74 (67)<.001
  Cortical contusion0 (0)32 (29)
  Hemorrhage0 (0)97 (88)
 Admission type, n (%)<.001
  ED and/or observation only53 (45)5 (5)78 (66)
  Hospital but not PICU50 (42)51 (46)39 (33)
  PICU16 (13)54 (49)1 (1)
 Hospital LOS, d, median (Q1, Q3)2 (1, 4)2 (2, 3)2 (1, 3).80
  • AIS, Abbreviated Injury Scale; CHIP, Children’s Health Insurance Program; ISS, Injury Severity Score; Q1, first quartile; Q3, third quartile; —, not applicable.

  • a P values reflect tests of association with injury group, specifically the χ2 test for categorical variables, analysis of variance for continuous variables summarized by using the mean, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables summarized by using the median.