TABLE 3

Multivariable Model Results for PCSI-P Outcomes

Somatic (N = 315)Emotionala (N = 313)Cognitiveb (N = 314)Fatigue (N = 323)Totalc (N = 315)
Coefficient (SE)PCoefficient (SE)PCoefficient (SE)PCoefficient (SE)PCoefficient (SE)P
Preinjury rating of outcome0.46 (0.13)<.0010.40 (0.07)<.0010.31 (0.08)<.0010.34 (0.14).020.45 (0.08)<.001
Injury severity, time
 Injury severity (versus OI).001<.001<.001.003<.001
  mTBI1.23 (0.41)0.88 (0.34)0.96 (0.31)0.45 (0.20)3.52 (1.03)
  cmTBI1.67 (0.51)1.67 (0.42)1.67 (0.39)0.85 (0.27)5.97 (1.42)
 Time from injury (versus 3 mo)Figure 2.02<.001.01Figure 2.008Figure 2<.001
  6 mo0.54 (0.22)0.22 (0.21)
  12 mo−0.55 (0.22)−0.38 (0.21)
Demographics
 Age at injuryFigure 2.34Figure 2.02Figure 2.62
 Age by time interactionFigure 2.003Figure 2.01Figure 2.02
 Female sex1.17 (0.42).0060.94 (0.36).010.84 (0.33).010.61 (0.23).0083.43 (1.19).004
 Spanish preferred language−1.44 (0.58).01−0.51 (0.27).06−4.03 (1.36).003
Preexisting problems
 CBCL affective problems score0.11 (0.04).0020.10 (0.03).0020.08 (0.04).060.09 (0.02)<.0010.38 (0.10)<.001
Family environment
 Income relative to poverty level−0.29 (0.09).002−0.21 (0.09).02−0.18 (0.07).01−0.17 (0.05)<.001−0.80 (0.25).002
 FAD family function1.55 (0.44)<.0010.86 (0.43).0462.89 (1.30).03
 Social capital−0.68 (0.23).004−0.54 (0.20).006−0.56 (0.19).003−1.78 (0.66).008
  • —, variable not included in the final model for the outcome.

  • a The emotional outcome model also included race (P = .001); Hispanic participants had a lower score on average than non-Hispanic white participants (effect estimate −1.48 ± 0.38).

  • b The cognitive outcome model also included the CBCL ADHD score (P = .09) and previous diagnosis of learning, behavioral, or developmental delay (P = .08).

  • c Example interpretation of the total outcome model effect estimates: the total PCSI outcome was higher, on average, for those with mTBI (3.5 points) and cmTBI (6.0 points) compared with those with an OI in the year after an injury. The effect of age at injury differed by time (Fig 2). Total scores were 3.4 points higher for girls than boys, on average, and 4.0 points lower for those with Spanish as a preferred language. Higher preinjury affective problems, lower income, poorer family function, and lower social capital were all associated with increased total PCSI scores.