TABLE 1

Characteristics of Infants and Interventions Received by NICU Type

Ventilation Restrictions, N = 31 564No Surgery, N = 120 194Surgery Except Cardiac Requiring Bypass, N = 196 389All Surgery, N = 138 594
Characteristics, %
 Maternal race
  White non-Hispanic65.861.355.255.5
  African American non-Hispanic14.419.217.322.6
  Hispanic12.312.518.314.5
  Other race2.22.02.52.2
 Inborn94.193.286.068.0
 Cesarean delivery50.853.454.856.2
 Multiple gestation12.714.515.014.6
 Congenital anomaly1.82.94.817.0
 Antenatal steroids 23–34 wk GA78.482.282.982.6
 1-min Apgar score <48.510.912.116.7
Interventions
 Initial resuscitation, %40.548.852.056.1
 Oxygen after initial resuscitation, %42.445.148.155.8
 Ventilation after initial resuscitation, %7.013.118.031.6
 Duration of assisted ventilation among ventilated, median (Q1, Q3)1 (1, 2)2 (1, 5)2 (1, 7)4 (1, 11)
 Nasal CPAP after initial resuscitation, %23.833.437.641.9
 Cranial imaging, %11.820.125.738.4
 Hypothermic therapy, %0.10.51.02.1
 Any major surgery at reporting center, %0.10.14.015.6
 Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, %0.00.00.11.0
 Inhaled nitric oxide, %0.20.91.74.8
  • CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; GA, gestational age; Q1, quartile 1; Q3, quartile 3.