TABLE 4

Logistic Regression Results for Chronic Postinjury Concussion Symptoms at 12 Months After Injury (N = 300)

Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI)P
Preinjury concussiona1.92 (0.93–3.96).08
Injury severity by age at injury, y.04
 4–8b
  mTBI versus OI1.57 (0.41–5.99)
  cmTBI versus OI7.01 (2.10–23.4)
 9–12
  mTBI versus OI0.60 (0.17–2.04)
  cmTBI versus OI1.03 (0.31–3.40)
 13–15
  mTBI versus OI2.60 (0.69–9.83)
  cmTBI versus OI1.37 (0.33–5.66)
Female (versus male) sex1.94 (1.05–3.59).04
Family function (1-point increase)2.42 (1.23–4.74).01
Social capital (1-point increase)0.66 (0.50–0.88).01
  • One or more symptoms increased relative to preinjury at the 12-mo follow-up in at least 3 of the following areas: cognitive, emotional, somatic, and sleep and/or fatigue. CI, confidence interval.

  • a One or more symptoms at preinjury in at least 3 of the following areas: cognitive, emotional, somatic, and sleep and/or fatigue.

  • b In children 4 to 8 y old, having a cmTBI was associated with increased odds of chronic concussion relative to mTBI (odds ratio 4.47; 95% confidence interval 1.38–14.5).